Thursday, 22 September 2016

Write a program in c to sum ,sub,mult ,division on a one program

void main()
int  a,b,sum,sub,mult;
float div;
printf(" enter the value of a and b\n");
printf("the sum is =%d",sum);
printf("the sub is =%d",sub);
printf("the mult is =%d",mult);
printf("the div is =%f",div)

Saturday, 3 September 2016

How to Prepare A Presentation Profile on Powerpoint

I like to think of Microsoft PowerPoint as a test of basic marketing skills. To create a passing presentation, I need to demonstrate design skills, technical literacy, and a sense of personal style.powerpoint-presentation-tips

If the presentation has a problem (like an unintended font, a broken link, or unreadable text), then I’ve probably failed the test. Even if my spoken presentation is well rehearsed, a bad visual experience can ruin it for the audience. Expertise means nothing without a good presentation to back it up.

PowerPoint Presentation Style Tips

Step 1: Don’t let PowerPoint decide how you use PowerPoint.

Microsoft wanted to provide PowerPoint users with a lot of tools. But this does not mean you should use them all. Here are some key things to look out for:

  • Make sure that preset PPT themes complement your needs before you adopt them.
  • Try to get away from using Microsoft Office’s default fonts, Calibri and Cambria. Using these two typefaces can make the presentation seem underwhelming.
  • Professionals should never use PPT’s action sounds. (Please consider your audience above personal preference).
  • PowerPoint makes bulleting automatic, but ask yourself: Are bullets actually appropriate for what you need to do? Sometimes they are, but not always.
  • Recent PPT defaults include a small shadow on all shapes. Remove this shadow if it's not actually needed. Also, don’t leave shapes in their default blue.

Step 2: Create custom slide sizes.

While you usually can get away with the default slide size for most presentations, you may need to adjust it for larger presentations on weirdly sized displays. If you need to do that, here's how.

  1. In the top-left corner, choose "File."
  2. Select "Page Setup."
  3. Type the height and width of the background you'd like, and click "OK."
  4. A dialogue box will appear. Click "OK" again.
  5. Your background is resized!

Tip: Resize your slides before you add any objects to them or the dimensions of your objects will become skewed.


Step 3: Edit your slide template design.

Often, it's much easier to edit your PowerPoint template before you start -- this way, you don't have design each slide by hand. Here's how you do that.

  1. Select "Themes" in the top navigation.
  2. In the far right, click "Edit Master," then "Slide Master."
  3. Make any changes you like, then click "Close Master." All current and future slides in that presentation will use that template.\

Step 4: Make sure all of your objects are properly aligned.

Having properly aligned objects on your slide is the key to making it look polished and professional. You can manually try to line up your images ... but we all know how that typically works out. You're trying to make sure all of your objects hang out in the middle of your slide, but when you drag them there, it still doesn't look quite right. Get rid of your guessing game and let PowerPoint work its magic with this trick.

How to align multiple objects:

  1. Select all objects by holding down "Shift" and clicking on all of them. 
  2. Select "Arrange" in the top options bar, then choose "Align or Distribute."
  3. Choose the type of alignment you'd like.Align-to-Object

How to align objects to the slide:

  1. Select all objects by holding down "Shift" and clicking on all of them. 
  2. Select "Arrange" in the top options bar, then choose "Align or Distribute."
  3. Select "Align to Slide."
  4. Select "Arrange" in the top options bar again, then choose "Align or Distribute."
  5. Choose the type of alignment you'd like.

Align-to-SlidePowerPoint Presentation Design Tips

Step 5: Get more control over your objects' designs using "Format" menus.

Format menus allow you to do fine adjustments that otherwise seem impossible. To do this, right click on an object and select the "Format" option. Here, you can fine-tune shadows, adjust shape measurements, create reflections, and much more. The menu that will pop up looks like this:powerpoint_format_menusAlthough the main options can be found on PowerPoint’s format toolbars, look for complete control in the format window menu. Other examples of options available include:

Adjusting text inside a shape.
Creating a natural perspective shadow behind an object.
Recoloring photos manually and with automatic options.

Step 6: Take advantage of PowerPoint's shapes.

Many users don’t realize how flexible PowerPoint’s shape tools have become. In combination with the expanded format options released by Microsoft in 2010, the potential for good design with shapes is readily available. PowerPoint provides the user with a bunch of great shape options beyond the traditional rectangle, oval, and rounded rectangle patterns, unlike even professional design programs like Adobe Creative Suite or Quark.

Today’s shapes include a highly functional Smart Shapes function, which enables you to create diagrams and flow charts in no time. These tools are especially valuable when you consider that PowerPoint is a visual medium. Paragraphing and bullet lists are boring -- you can use shapes to help express your message more clearly.

Step 7: Create custom shapes.

When you create a shape, right click and press "Edit Points." By editing points, you can create custom shapes that fit your specific need. For instance, you can reshape arrows to fit the dimensions you like.edit_pointsAnother option is to combine two shapes together. When selecting two shapes, right-click and go to the "Grouping" sub-menu to see a variety of options.

  • Combine creates a custom shape that has overlapping portions of the two previous shapes cut out.
  • Union makes one completely merged shape.
  • Intersect builds a shape of only the overlapping sections of the two previous shapes.
  • Subtract cuts out the overlapping portion of one shape from the other.
  • By using these tools rather than trying to edit points precisely, you can create accurately measured custom shapes.

Step 8: Crop images into custom shapes.

Besides creating custom shapes in your presentation, you can also use PowerPoint to crop existing images into new shapes. Here's how you do that:

  1. Click on the image and select "Format" in the options bar.
  2. Choose "Crop," then "Mask to Shape," and then choose your desired shape. Ta-da! Custom-shaped photos. 

Crop-to-ShapeStep 9: Present websites within PowerPoint.

Tradition says that if you want to show a website in a PowerPoint, you should just create link to the page and prompt a browser to open. For PC users, there’s a better option.

Third party software that integrates fully into PowerPoint’s developer tab can be used to embed a website directly into your PowerPoint using a normal HTML iframe. One of the best tools is LiveWeb, a third-party software developed independently.

By using LiveWeb, you don’t have to interrupt your PowerPoint, and your presentation will remain fluid and natural. Whether you embed a whole webpage or just a YouTube video, this can be a high-quality third party improvement.

Unfortunately, Mac users don’t have a similar option. A good second choice is to take screen shots of the website, link in through a browser, or embed media (such as a YouTube video) by downloading it directly to your computer.

Friday, 2 September 2016

History of Python Language

Python’s early development started at a research institute in Amsterdam called CWI, which is a Dutch acronym for a phrase that translates into English as Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science. CWI is an interesting place; funded by the Dutch government’s Department of Education and other research grants, it conducts academic-level research into computer science and mathematics. At any given time there are plenty of Ph.D. students wandering about and old-timers in the profession may still remember its original name, the Mathematical Centre. Under this name, it was perhaps most famous for the invention of Algol 68.

I started working at CWI in late 1982, fresh out of university, as a programmer in the ABC group led by Lambert Meertens and Steven Pemberton. After 4 or 5 years the ABC project was terminated due to the lack of obvious success and I moved to CWI’s Amoeba group led by Sape Mullender. Amoeba was a micro-kernel-based distributed system being jointly developed by CWI and the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, under leadership of Andrew Tanenbaum. In 1991 Sape left CWI for a professorship at the University of Twente and I ended up in the newly formed CWI multimedia group led by Dick Bulterman.

Python is a direct product of my experience at CWI. As I explain later, ABC gave me the key inspiration for Python, Amoeba the immediate motivation, and the multimedia group fostered its growth. However, so far as I know, no funds at CWI were ever officially earmarked for its development. Instead, it merely evolved as an important tool for use in both the Amoeba and multimedia groups.

My original motivation for creating Python was the perceived need for a higher level language in the Amoeba project. I realized that the development of system administration utilities in C was taking too long. Moreover, doing these in the Bourne shell wouldn’t work for a variety of reasons. The most important one was that as a distributed micro-kernel system with a radically new design, Amoeba’s primitive operations were very different (and finer-grain) than the traditional primitive operations available in the Bourne shell. So there was a need for a language that would “bridge the gap between C and the shell.” For a long time, this was Python’s main catchphrase.

At this point, you might ask "why not port an existing language?" In my view, there weren’t a lot of suitable languages around at that time. I was familiar with Perl 3, but it was even more tied to Unix than the Bourne shell. I also didn’t like Perl’s syntax--my tastes in programming language syntax were strongly influenced by languages like Algol 60, Pascal, Algol 68 (all of which I had learned early on), and last but not least, ABC, on which I’d spent four years of my life. So, I decided to design a language of my own which would borrow everything I liked from ABC while at the same time fixing all its problems (as I perceived them).

The first problem I decided to fix was the name! As it happened, the ABC team had some trouble picking a name for its language. The original name for the language, B, had to be abandoned because of confusion with another language named B, that was older and better known. In any case, B was meant as a working title only (the joke was that B was the name of the variable containing the name of the language--hence the italics). The team had a public contest to come up with a new name, but none of the submissions made the cut, and in the end, the internal back up candidate prevailed. The name was meant to convey the idea that the language made programming “as simple as ABC”, but it never convinced me all that much.

So, rather than over-analyzing the naming problem, I decided to under-analyze it. I picked the first thing that came to mind, which happened to be Monty Python’s Flying Circus, one of my favorite comedy troupes. The reference felt suitably irreverent for what was essentially a “skunkworks project”. The word “Python” was also catchy, a bit edgy, and at the same time, it fit in the tradition of naming languages after famous people, like Pascal, Ada, and Eiffel. The Monty Python team may not be famous for their advancement of science or technology, but they are certainly a geek favorite. It also fit in with a tradition in the CWI Amoeba group to name programs after TV shows.

For many years I resisted attempts to associate the language with snakes. I finally gave up when O’Reilly wanted to put a snake on the front of their first Python book "Programming Python". It was an O’Reilly tradition to use animal pictures, and if it had to be an animal, it might as well be a snake.

With the naming issue settled, I started working on Python in late December 1989, and had a working version in the first months of 1990. I didn’t keep notes, but I remember vividly that the first piece of code I wrote for Python’s implementation was a simple LL(1) parser generator I called “pgen." This parser generator is still part of the Python source distribution and probably the least changed of all the code. This early version of Python was used by a number of people at CWI, mostly, but not exclusively in the Amoeba group during 1990. Key developers besides myself were my officemates, programmers Sjoerd Mullender (Sape’s younger brother) and Jack Jansen (who remained one of the lead developers of the Macintosh port for many years after I left CWI).

On February 20, 1991, I first released Python to the world in the alt.sources newsgroup (as 21 uuencoded parts that had to be joined together and uudecoded to form a compressed tar file). This version was labeled 0.9.0, and released under a license that was an almost verbatim copy of the MIT license used by the X11 project at the time, substituting “Stichting Mathematisch Centrum”, CWI’s parent organization, as the responsible legal entity. So, like almost everything I’ve written, Python was open source before the term was even invented by Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens in late 1997.

There was immediately a lot of feedback and with this encouragement I kept a steady stream of releases coming for the next few years. I started to use CVS to track changes and to allow easier sharing of coding responsibilities with Sjoerd and Jack (Coincidentally, CVS was originally developed as a set of shell scripts by Dick Grune, who was an early member of the ABC group). I wrote a FAQ, which was regularly posted to some newsgroup, as was customary for FAQs in those days before the web, started a mailing list, and in March 1993 the comp.lang.python newsgroup was created with my encouragement but without my direct involvement. The newsgroup and mailing list were joined via a bidirectional gateway that still exists, although it is now implemented as a feature of mailman – the dominant open source mailing list manager, itself written in Python.

In the summer of 1994, the newsgroup was buzzing with a thread titled “If Guido was hit by a bus?” about the dependency of the growing Python community on my personal contributions. This culminated in an invitation from Michael McLay for me to spend two months as a guest researcher at NIST, the US National Institute for Standards and Technology, formerly the National Bureau of Standards, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Michael had a number of “customers” at NIST who were interested in using Python for a variety of standards-related projects and the budget for my stay there was motivated by the need to help them improve their Python skills, as well as possibly improving Python for their needs.

Characterstic Of Python

  1. Generator Expressions
  2. input() Let me explain, I have not seen a language (so far), where you can assign a value to a statement that prints something, it is like ruby's print/gets, but with a value assigned to the print, instead of: print "Foo" bar = gets
  3. yield
  4. Many types of datasets: ordereddict, namedtuple, array, list, tuple, dictionary